Thursday, July 29, 2010

Misc 48

If you wish you use routing protocols on a Linux , you would need to install a routing software suite known as Quagga. Quagga supports OSPF (ospfd), OSPFv3 (ospf6d), RIP (ripd), RIPng (ripngd) and BGP (bgpd). All these run on a core daemon known as zebra (required to add static routes).
As evident from the routing protocols it supports, Quagga supports both IPv4 and IPv6 routing. These Daemons need to be run together with Zebra, which is used for specifying the interfaces, static routes and so on. Zebra is also essential for communicating with the routing daemons.

Right after we install Quagga, we'll need to specify the daemons that we want to run. These daemons can be specified by modifying:
nano /etc/quagga/daemons

In this example, I'm going to run OSPF. To do this, simply edit the configuration to reflect:

Now, if you read a little up, there is a warning that says that you'll need to have a configuration file even if it's empty. Luckily for us, we have sample configuration files available for us. To find them, we simply type:
dpkg -L quagga | grep zebra.conf
dpkg -L quagga | grep ospfd.conf

Once we've got the paths, we'll need to copy them into the /etc/quagga/ folder:
cp /usr/share/doc/quagga/examples/zebra.conf.sample ./zebra.conf
cp /usr/share/doc/quagga/examples/ospfd.conf.sample ./ospfd.conf

At this point, we'll simply make a loopback interface on the Zebra so that we can see routes appear at the router side. To do this, modify zebra.conf and add:
interface lo
ip address

Now, we'll need to modify ospfd.conf. On my side, Quagga is sitting on, the router is in The router has a loopback of and Quagga has a loopback of We'll now configure ospfd.conf to reflect routes:
router ospf
network area 0
network area 0

Back on the router, here's the configuration we have:
in f0/0
ip add
in lo0
ip add
router ospf 1
network area 0
network area 0

Now we'll restart all the daemons through:
/etc/init.d/quagga restart

If it all goes well, "show ip ospf nei" should show up as:
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface         1     FULL/BDR        00:00:34         FastEthernet0/0

Now to check the routes on Linux, you can either use the kernel command:
route -n

Another method is to go directly into the daemon's interactive context which is similar to IOS in many ways. To do this, we'll need to telnet to the localhost. The ports we'll be using are:
2601 - zebra
2602 - ripd
2603 - ripng
2604 - ospfd
2605 - bgpd
2606 - ospf6d

If you're in zebra, you can simply type:
show ip route

If you're on ospfd, you can use:
show ip ospf routes

The passwords are those stored in zebra.conf and ospfd.conf. It is "zebra" by default. Now you can try pinging and it should all go well!


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